The Effects of Nicotine on Fracture Healing in Rats
Huseyin YORGANCIGIL, Remzi A OZERDEMOGLU, Feza KORKUSUZ, Nural ERDOGAN
Keywords: Nicotine, Fracture Healing, Callus.
Introduction: Cigarette smoking has been shown to be a risk factor for developing complications in skin flap survival and bone graft revascularisation. The involving mechanisms may also act upon fracture healing. Animals and
Methods: To determine whether nicotine would retard fracture healing in the rat, 25 rats were divided into two groups and given nicotine or saline subcutaneously at the dose of 2 mg/kg twice a day, for four weeks. Then their right forelimbs were broken. The rats were killed and histopathological sections of the radius and ulna were examined at the 7th and 21 st days after fractures. Nicotine or saline treatment continued throughout the experiment.
Results: Fracture healing scores were found to be lower in nicotine treated rats in both phases.
Discussion: It is assumed that nicotine may impair fracture healing in the rat forearm model by diminishing nutritional blood flow via vasoconstriction and by its direct effect on osteogenesis. Findings of this study identify nicotine use as being a risk factor for defective fracture healing.