Protective effects of melatonin on ischemia-reperfusion injury of skeletal muscle
Mehmet Erdem1, Bora Bostan1, Taner Güneş1, Fatih Özkan2, Cengiz Şen1, Hüseyin Özyurt3, Reşit Doğan Köseoğlu4, Hasan Erdoğan5
1Gaziosmanpaşa Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Ortopedi ve Travmatoloji Anabilim Dalı
2Anesteziyoloji ve Reanimasyon Anabilim Dalı
3Biyokimya Anabilim Dalı
4Patoloji Anabilim Dalı
5Fizyoloji Anabilim Dalı, Tokat, Türkiye
Keywords: İschemia/reperfusion injury; melatonin; reactive oxygen species; skeletal muscle.
Objectives: In this study, we investigated the antioxidant protective effects of melatonin on skeletal muscles of Wistar albino-type rats with acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight Wistar albino-type male rats weighing between 334 to 422 g were included in this experimental study. The rats were randomly allocated into three groups including sham, I/R and I/R + melatonin groups, respectively. Limb ischemia was achieved by clamping femoral arteries. After a two-hour ischemia period followed by 1.5- hour reperfusion, muscle samples were collected for biochemical analysis and histopathological examination.
Results: Muscle tissues of I/R groups revealed significantly higher antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase) activities, and increased levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and protein carbonyl content compared to the control group (p<0.001). Levels of these parameters in muscle revealed significant reductions in the I/R + melatonin group compared to the I/R group (p<0.001). Histopathological examination of ischemic muscles in the I/R group showed significant degeneration and inflammation compared to the control group whereas melatonin administered ischemic muscles showed significant reduction in degeneration and inflammation compared to the I/R group (p<0.001).
Conclusion: In the present skeletal muscle acute I/R injury model, protective effects of melatonin against reperfusion injury have been revealed. We suggest that the protective effect of melatonin against I/R damage in cases of extremity injuries with acute vascular compromise, extremity surgery with prolonged tourniquet time and acute compartment syndrome should be investigated with clinical trials.